The Czech Republic is an independent state and a parliamentary democracy headed by the president who is elected by the parliament for a Five-year term. The president is the head of state, but it is the Prime Minister with the government who wields the most power. The cabinet is composed of the Prime Minister, vice-president and ministers. The Prime Minister is chosen by the president who then advises on the selection of other members of the cabinet.
Political parties in the Czech Republic
The Social Democrats, the Freedom Union, the People Party, the Civic Democratic Alliance, the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, the Christian and Democratic Union - Czechoslovak People's Party .
The parliament is composed of two chambers: House of representatives (The Chamber of Deputies) has 200 delegates who are voted in for a four-year term; and the senate has 81 senators who are voted in for a six-year term. Both chambers are elected by citizens of the Czech Republic who are 18 year and over. Czechoslovakia remained hobbled by the old Communist Constitution even after its first post Communist democratic.
The traditional lands of the Czech Republic, Bohemia and Moravia are divided into administrative regions, consisting of Prague, Brno and five regions in Bohemia and two regions in Moravia (North Moravia includes part of the historical region of Silesia). These are further subdivided into 75 districts. There has been much talk of reorganizing these inefficient, communist-era divisions.
As stated in the Constitution of the Czech Republic, the principal function of the Parliament is the exercise of legislative power. The Chamber of Deputies has the deciding vote, although certain Acts specified by the Constitution must be adopted by affirmative resolutions of both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Furthermore, the Parliament decides on the most important acts of State, such as the declaration of the state of warned the consent with the stay of foreign armies in the territory of The Czech Republic. Armed forced may be deployed outside the territory of the Czech Republic only with the consent of both Chamber of the Parliament. Parliament must also ratify all international treaties, such as on human rights and fundamental freedoms, political treaties and economic treaties of general character, as well as any treaties the implementation of which requires an Act.
The Act on the elections to the Senate, envisaged by Article 107 of the Constitution, provides the manner of determination in the first elections of that third of the number of Senators, whose period of office will be two years, and that third of the number of Senators, whose period of office will be four years. The remaining third will serve for a period of six years, which will be the normal term in the future.
The President of the Czech Republic
The President of the Republic is the head of State and is elected by the Parliament at a general meeting of both Chambers. Any citizen with active suffrage, who has attained the age of forty years, may be elected President. No one may be elected more than twice in succession. At least ten Deputies or ten Senators must nominate candidates for the post of the President of the Republic. The President of the Republic has the right to participate in the meeting of both Chambers of Parliament, their Committees and Commissions. He is given the floor whenever he requests it. The President also has the right to participate in the meetings of the Government, to request reports from the Government and its members, and to discuss with the Government and its members any issues within their jurisdiction.
Bohemia and Moravia have specialized in light industry since the Industrial Revolution, and in central Europe their combined industrial output has been second only to Germany's.
Under Communist rule Czech industry and agriculture were nationalized, and heavy industry was introduced along Stalinist lines, mainly in steel and machinery. Other important industries include armaments, vehicles, cement, ceramics, plastics, cotton - and of course beer.